For countries feeling the effects of climate change, from floods to drought and extreme heat, conflict can be an additional woe.
Climate change can lead to and exacerbate conflict, say experts, but for those living on the frontline, these dual problems intersect and compound disasters.
Take Sudan's western Darfur region - a fragile environment both politically and physically, where recurring drought in drylands has made water a scarce resource, ripe for fighting over.
"We know that conflict disrupts governance at all levels," Helen Young, a research director at Tufts University, said at a meeting convened this week by the UK-funded Building Resilience and Adaptation to Climate Extremes and Disasters (BRACED) programme.
In Sudan, extreme variability of rainfall can impact on migration and cause tensions between communities, she said.
BRACED research found that seasonal conflicts were commonplace between farmers and herders, when herders' livestock trespass on farmers' fields and damage crops before they harvest.
"Things like the farmer-pastoralist conflict, you don't get that if there's a good harvest and a good rainy season... they're not going to bother each other," said Young.
Such tensions used to be settled by traditional leaders who would decide when animals were allowed to graze crop residue, but Young said these resolution mechanisms were no longer being respected, due to a "power imbalance" created by broader national conflicts.
"Unfortunately, the power dynamics between farmers and herders has shifted quite significantly since the outbreak of the wider conflict, in part because of the arming of herders while many of the farmers remain unarmed," she explained.
For Anne Radday, also from Tufts University, climate change and conflict are increasingly engaged in a "vicious circle".
"It's impossible to build climate resilience without understanding and taking into account conflict dynamics," Radday told event participants.
Such problems are not unique to Sudan, however.
Across the Sahel nomadic herders looking for pasture and water for their cattle often turn to land and wells used by settled farmers.
In western Chad this can spark tension, said Isaac Gahungu of Concern Worldwide, a charity working on the BRACED programme.
"The traditional leaders try to find solutions... but it's still hard because most of them [leaders] have the same problem - access to water," he said.
Although mediation and better communication can help, the long-term effects of climate change will only drive further conflict, said Gahungu.
"The conflicts will continue - even now NGOs, civil society and government are struggling to find solutions," he said.
By 2035, 80 percent of those living in extreme poverty are expected to be in fragile states, according to research by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
MAPPING WATER SOURCES
In Asia too, water scarcity has led to conflict, according to Parvin Sultana, a senior research fellow at Middlesex University.
A dispute over water broke out between two communities in the Hakaluki Haor region of Bangladesh, which quickly escalated into violence between groups living at the top and bottom of the river.
Village elders were consulted and shared information about where other water sources had once been found, with young people then digging up old wells, Sultana said.
This approach led to the rediscovery of abandoned water sources that were then joined to create a rudimentary canal, which resolved the conflict, she said.
The community then sold the surplus of water, using the extra income to maintain the canal.
The project provides a good example of using local knowledge and managing climate-induced conflicts for others to learn from, said Sultana.